To learn about laboratory testing from the acknowledged international leader in good roads, Page took courses in France's School of Bridges and Roads l'Ecole nationale des Ponts et Chaussees. One of the challenges facing road builders was the availability of material suitable for use in roads. Each State had its own unique materials that were more or less suited to road building. In , the ORI had begun working with the U. Geological Survey to identify satisfactory road materials. In , Congress appropriated funds for a materials testing laboratory in the Agriculture Department's Bureau of Chemistry.
Dodge, who believed that material testing was at the heart of French success in building good roads, hired Page to head the laboratory. Page, with 7 years of experience in Massachusetts and training in French laboratory science, would establish the new laboratory as the Nation's primary scientific laboratory on road building materials. As Seely explained:. Like the object-lesson road program, the sample testing program was extremely popular. The railroads, contractors, quarry operators, government officials, and the public all sent samples of stone, rock, tar, oil, sand, and other materials for analysis and often asked for proper instruction on their use.
Almost every letter received a short reply, and whenever applicable, a copy of a relevant office bulletin or circular. Under Page's guidance, the testing division also began research projects into the use of Portland cement and other materials for road surfacing. The laboratory director was especially interested in cement and concrete, and as this work became known, he even received requests for help from manufacturers of concrete fence posts and cement wash tubs.
The primary point is that the laboratory very quickly strengthened the Office of Public Road Inquiry's national position as the standard source of information on road materials and construction methods. Thesis, , University Microfilms International, p. Dodge's tenure coincided with a national shift in surface transportation.
As reflected in his Ohio work, he initially saw a shift from animal power to inanimate power. This was, he believed, part of a larger debate in society about the shift of population from farms to the industrial urban areas. Some ten years ago I became satisfied that the agricultural industry in this country was passing through a period of decline, especially in the eastern and middle states.
When the census report for was published, it was more apparent than ever before that the agricultural industry had not only declined as to its prosperity, but that relative to other industries it was losing its place. This was manifest by deserted villages in the rural districts, abandoned farm-houses, and an absolute decrease in the rural population. In studying the causes of this decline in agriculture I soon observed that those communities which had the best and cheapest means of transportation had suffered the least , and that those communities that were poorly provided with the means of transportation had suffered most.
States in the trans-Mississippi group, which had "the cheapest means of transportation for long distances by the steam railroads and the steamships upon the great lakes," suffered less of a decline:. On the other hand, the local communities who are dependent upon animal power to move their products have suffered the greatest decline where the wagon roads are poorest, and the least decline where wagon roads are best. So it seems apparent that the most important factor in producing the changed condition of population and the decreasing value of agricultural land is the item of transportation.
Dodge pointed out that the relationship was so clear that "the value of agricultural land can be accurately estimated by its distance from easy means of transportation. Documenting the cost of transportation under varying conditions was a task that General Stone, Dodge, and his successor would consider an important part of their scientific and promotional work.
The purpose of the three steel trackway demonstrations in had been to illustrate a way of reducing the cost of transportation. Dodge summarized the latest findings:. The cost of moving tonnage 1, miles by steamships upon deep water, miles on steam cars, or 25 miles upon electric cars, is no greater than the cost of moving tonnage five miles by animal power upon a common road. Having noticed this great difference in the cost of moving the productions of the country. Bulletin and Good Roads , December 23, , p. While promoting the shift from animal to inanimate power, Dodge served as Director during the period when the automobile replaced the bicycle as the primary vehicle behind the Good Roads Movement.
During the 's and 's, bicyclists had dominated the movement during The Bicycle Craze, including efforts to convince farmers that good roads were in their interest. Dodge, as Acting Director in , cited the bicycle as an example of one of the trends he favored in an era when alternatives to the railroad were being examined. He suggested shifting focus from the roadbed to the vehicle riding over it and the means of its propulsion.
The roadbed, as commonly constructed, is of great width and solidity, yet the burdens passing over these roads are, as a rule, only from one or two tons in weight. It is unnecessary and unwise to build roads for the transportation of light burdens capable of sustaining burdens a hundred times the ordinary weight. Of course the new roadway should be hard and smooth. This can be effected by substituting steel for stone.
In reference to the vehicle, the fault which expresses itself in excessive weight, is the result of a natural evolution based upon conditions heretofore existing, but now rapidly passing away and capable of complete elimination. First of all, the improvement of the roadbed can be effected without increasing the cost of its construction. In the second place, the weight of the vehicle can be greatly diminished in proportion to the load it carried. The bicycle is a noted example of what has been done in this respect.
The chief value of the bicycle resides in the fact that it carries a burden many times its own weight. If it were constructed on the principle of nearly all other vehicles, so as to weigh as much, or more, than the burden it carries, it would have no practical value and would not be in use. It is possible, in my opinion, to construct other vehicles so as to attain, to a very great extent though not to so high a degree, the perfection of the bicycle in that the vehicle shall carry in all cases more than its own weight, and in most cases many times its own weight.
In the third place, having such vehicles as I have referred to above, it is possible to substitute inanimate power for animal power for all distance [sic] upwards of five miles, and by such substitution there would be a gain equal to four-fifths of the present cost for animal power. As a fourth element of advantage, and one resulting from the foregoing, there would be an increase in the speed of vehicles and consequently a proportional saving in time, which is also an economic gain of great consequence.
No real progress was made in the development of the bicycle until the low wheels were put on and the centre of gravity lowered to the lowest possible point. This example should be imitated in the construction of other vehicles. With a smooth truckway and a light vehicle placed upon roller bearings, it is possible to substitute inanimate power for animal power on all distances of five miles and upwards with a very great saving, equal to what is estimated to approximate four-fifths of the present cost for animal power, and as a natural result of these conditions there will come a great increase in the speed of the vehicle.
Bulletin and Good Roads , February 10, , p. Soon, Dodge had to acknowledge that technology was moving in the opposite direction, away from light vehicles with heavy loads. Dodge put the evolution in historical perspective:. In the early history of this country the plan of internal improvement by the general government included the building of highways.
This plan was strongly advocated by such statesmen as Clay and Calhoun and was followed until the introduction of the railroad furnished a cheaper means for the long haul than could be attained upon the ordinary highways. Within the past few years new inventions have been made which are destined to change all this. We now have the bicycle, the automobile, the suburban street car, all moved without the aid of animal power and suited for use upon the highway.
The time has now come to take up, develop and carry out the original thought and intention of providing a cheap and easy way of moving light and ordinary vehicles over the common highways, to and from the houses of the people carrying themselves and their products. The one great thing which we need in order to accomplish this very desirable result is better roads. And in order to make sure of a rapid and permanent improvement of our highways we should appeal to the original system of internal improvement advocated by Clay and Calhoun.
Magazine , June , p. The November issue of L. Magazine contained this brief item in its "Observations of the Month" column that reflected the shift to the automobile:. In relation to his active interest in the construction of an inter-state side path from Boston to New York to Chicago, Director Dodge, of the office of Public Road Inquiries, at Washington, informs us that he is confident that the completion of such a wheelway would be but the first step toward the construction of an inter-state national highway along the same route.
Having brought this part of the plan to a successful conclusion, the next step would be to interest the automobile people. Judging from the rapidity with which the automobile is becoming popular, and the success which has attended recent long-distance runs, the horseless vehicle is destined to spread beyond the metropolitan districts. As good roads are essential for the rubber tired carriage, Mr. Dodge hopes, by the aid of manufacturers, automobile clubs and property owners along the proposed route, to widen the cycle path into a road sufficiently broad for the automobile.
Having obtained a smooth and serviceable road, twenty feet wide, and running in as nearly a straight line as possible from Boston to Chicago, the further task of widening it for a universal highway would be the natural sequence. As soon as the states west of Chicago evince a willingness to fall in line, as some have already done, the work will be extended westward in the same manner.
McKinley was greeting exposition visitors. Historian Paul F. Boller, Jr. McKinley's handshake was famous. To save wear and tear on his right hand at receptions, the President developed what came to be called the "McKinley grip. Just past 4 p. The guest, a Polish anarchist named Leon Czolgosz, shot the President twice, once in the chest and once in the abdomen. After emergency surgery in the exposition's small hospital, the President was taken to the home of the exposition president, John Milburn.
The President's condition was considered too grave for the longer trip to a larger hospital. The article began:. Buffalo, Sept. Oxygen had been administered steadily, but with little effect in keeping back the approach of death. The President came out of one period of unconsciousness only to relapse into another. But in this period, when his mind was partially clear, occurred a series of events of profoundly touching character. They knew the end was near and that the time had come when they must see him for the last time on earth.
This was about 6 o'clock. Secretary [of Agriculture James] Wilson also was there, but he held back, not wishing to see the President in his last agony. There was only a momentary stay of the Cabinet officers at the threshold of the death chamber. Then they withdrew, the tears streaming down their faces and the words of intense grief choking in their throats. She came to the room strong in her weakness compared with the weakness of the strong man whose life was so fast ebbing. The physicians and all but one of the nurses in the room, and for ten minutes husband and wife sat alone. McKinley came from the room and was escorted back to her own.
Mile marker numbers are used for signage, while sequential numbers are used for numbering interchanges internally. The first section makes up the Major Deegan Expressway in the Bronx , with interchanges numbered sequentially from 1 to Following the passage of the Federal Aid Highway Act of , the railroad system for passengers and freight declined sharply, but the trucking industry expanded dramatically and the cost of shipping and travel fell sharply.
Suburbanization became possible, with the rapid growth of easily accessible, larger, cheaper housing than was available in the overcrowded central cities. Tourism dramatically expanded as well, creating a demand for more service stations, motels, restaurants and visitor attractions. There was much more long-distance movement to the Sunbelt for winter vacations, or for permanent relocation, with convenient access to visits to relatives back home. In rural areas, towns and small cities off the grid lost out as shoppers followed the interstate and new factories were located near them.
The system had a particularly strong effect in the Southern United States , as most Southern states had not previously been able to afford the construction of major highways. The construction of the Interstate Highway System facilitated the relocation of heavy manufacturing to the South and spurred the development of Southern-based corporations like Walmart and FedEx. The Interstate Highway System has been criticized for contributing to the decline of some cities and for destroying predominantly African-American neighborhoods in urban centers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States highway system. For the type of highway, see Controlled-access highway. For other uses, see Interstate disambiguation.
Interstate Highway System - Wikipedia
Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. See version with numbers. This article is part of a series about. Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. Remarks in Cadillac Square, Detroit. President Eisenhower delivered remarks about the need for a new highway program at Cadillac Square in Detroit on October 29, Text of speech excerpt. Main article: Federal Aid Highway Act of See also: Future Interstate Highways. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Highway revolts in the United States. Main article: Interstate Highway standards. See also: List of Interstate Highways. See also: List of auxiliary Interstate Highways. Standard Interstate shields. See also: Category:Tolled sections of Interstate Highways.
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There is some climbing on this ride up and over the shoulder of the wooded Tug Hill Plateau. The highest point is feet higher than Lake Ontario, but the views are worth the ride. The roads on the Salmon Hatchery Loop are mostly quiet blacktops with a few busy stretches. Connects to the Oswego Canal Park walking trails and together they provide 5 or 6 miles of enjoyable exploring up and down the banks of the Oswego River and along the shore of Lake Ontario.
Stop to watch the boats using the locks on the Oswego Canal as they make the mile trip between Lake Ontario and the Erie Canal.
Part I: Crafting Parks & Shaping a City
Bikes are allowed on one of the four trails, the orange loop, which is the largest loop of the four at about 5 miles. The complex provides outdoor opportunities for the whole family in a number of environments, including a mature forest, wetlands, a wildflower trail and an herb garden. Check in with Chamber offices, bike shops and other sports shops in the area to get the latest information and review your route with someone knowledgeable of the area.