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Think about that. According to reports, it went over like hotcakes And the recipe she used became the standard for what came to be known as "American-style fudge. There is come mild controversy attached to Hartridge and fudge, so we'll clarify the situation: she never claimed to have invented the fudge recipe. Hartridge acknowledged that the recipe she used was provided by a classmate, who said it was her cousin's.

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But those friends-of-friends' names have been lost to history; when the makers of Bakers Chocolate published "Choice Recipes" in , they printed the recipe Hartridge had provided, and called it "Vassar Fudge. Hartridge became owner and president of what was known at the time as the Misses Scribner and Newton's School for Girls in Plainfield in Otherwise, the skeptics have an field day casting doubt on our ability to understand the factors that influence these estimates and, thus, can undermine faith in the paleoestimates.

You can see the problematic data series in the following early version of the IPCC 2. You can also see the "decline" at the end of the series that was at odds with the instrumental record -- it was this divergence which complicated the "tidy story.

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The facts of what happened here should not be controversial. A group of scientists associated with the IPCC decided to simplify the presentation of paleo-climate data in orger to convey a "tidy message" and to try to avoid the "skeptics" some "fodder" with which to have a "field day. The selective presentation of information is a form of cherrypicking, a widely used term that I described in as follows : the careful selection of information to buttress a particular predetermined perspective while ignoring other information that does not The actions by the IPCC scientists to "hide the decline" were a form of cherrypicking.

Semantics aside, anyone seeking to bring charges of formal scientific misconduct against these scientists or the IPCC would have a tough -- I'd say impossible -- case to make. To understand this you need to know what scientific misconduct actually is, and how it is judged. The scientists here were clearly shaping a message, explicitly motivated by a political agenda against the "skeptics" and grounded in a fundamental distrust of policy makers and the public to be able handle the complete information.

As I argue in The Honest Broker , the penalties for cherrypicking are a loss of credibility and legitimacy in scientific and political processes. But make no mistake, everyone is selective in the information that they present when making an argument, scientific or political.


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In fact, there is no practical way to present all of the information and all of the uncertainties. The question thus is not whether one seeks to manage the presentation of uncertainties -- but rather have you made a argument that is fair, robust and legitimate?

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Meeting these criteria typically means being open about uncertainties, warts and all. If you are perceived not to have made such an argument then you may see some of the following occur -- your paper could be rejected for publication, your peers might disagree with your views, your policy arguments dismissed, your credibility diminish and so on.

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The problem is that science journals, like the popular media, are more likely to publish findings that suggest chocolate is healthy than those that conclude it has no effect, which skews meta-analyses. Most people have positive expectations about chocolate because they like it. They are therefore primed, through the conditioning effect — famously described by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov — to respond positively. They may, for example, become more relaxed, boosting levels of endorphins and neurotransmitters, and triggering short-term physiological benefits.

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Many of the studies that involve people being given chocolate and tracking their health over time are short and have small numbers of participants. This adds to the difficulties nutritional scientists have in separating out the effects of consuming one food or nutrient from the rest of their diet and other variables and interactions within the body. So when and why did chocolate companies become so keen on using science as a marketing tool?

The answer depends on whom you ask. During the s, scientists became interested in the French paradox — the now discredited observation that heart disease rates were low in France despite a national diet high in saturated fats. One proposed explanation was relatively high consumption of flavanols, a group of compounds found in red wine, tea and cocoa which, at high doses, had been linked to the prevention of cellular damage.

US researchers caused a stir when from around the turn of the century they concluded that Kuna people off the coast of Panama had low blood pressure and rates of cardiovascular disease because they drank more than five cups of flavanol-rich cocoa per day. This undoubtedly stimulated chocolate industry research.

This triggered a wave of media reports and negative publicity.

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Some say the industry poured money into science at this time to divert attention away from west Africa. Industry figures strenuously disagree. The level of investment and energy and intensity of research was much more driven by that than it was by the idea of creating a halo around chocolate. Critics have accused Mars in particular of using nutritional science to cast its products in a good light.

Disclaimer

Through its scientific arm, Mars Symbioscience , it has published more than peer-reviewed scientific papers on cocoa flavanols and health since The family-owned company has traditionally remained tight-lipped about its involvement in cocoa research. However, last month it published its policies on conducting and funding research.

If you look back 20 years, there was this idea that this could create huge opportunities for us. But he says this changed long ago.